eep - many questions. let’s have a go an ansering them.
Knitting in the round can be done using a few different methods including using circular needles. The idea is that instead of being flat each end of your cast on sticthes are joined to each other to form a tube that you go around and around with.
Other methods include DPNs (double pointed needles) 2 circulars and magic loop, all of which are particularly good for things of a small circumfrence.
Which goes on to the second question. with circular needles in order to get a complete tube, the number of cast on stitches has to be able to go all the way around the circular needles without becoming over stretched. since the tube needed for gloves would be quite small, they would not fit onto a circular needle. DPN’s 2 circulars and Magic Loop, can be used instead. DPNs mimic a circle by using 3 or 4 short straight needles (with a point at each end) to creat a ring. you use another needle to knit the sticthes. 2 circulars work by dividing a tube of knitting into two halves which are held separatly and are knit one half at a time (sort off, it’s a little hard to explain.
The are videos of all of these techniques on this website.
The numbers in the pattern you ask about look like somthing known as guage. This is the numebr of stitches (or rows) per inch that you get with a particualr size yarn and needles. Different patterns cal for different gauges, and it is easiest to measure over a swatch of 4 inches (10cm). thin yarn on small needles will give you a small gauge, or lots of sticthes per inch and thick yarn on large needles wil give a bigger gauge, or few stitches per inch. This directly relatex to howmany sticthes are cast on to get different sized things.
For patterns i would look at www.knittingpatterncentral.com or www.knitty.com
And i’m sorry i don’t know the yarn so can’t help you with that. Although it is a worsted weight which is a medium to thick yarn so should be useful for a number of fingerless glove patterns.