Need help with pattern

I’m working on the pattern above called “just your basic baby sock”. I don’t get a couple directions:

  1. knit 10 (15) rows, or to desired length minus about 1/2" (1" for toddler sizes) for heel.

I knitted 10 rows (because they are for a newborn), but what does the “minus about 1/2” mean?

  1. (remainder of heel will be worked on bottom needles only)

I don’t know what the bottom needles are.

  1. knit in stockinette (knit all rows) until leg is desired length minus 1" (2" for toddlers)

Again, I don’t know what the “minus 1” means.

thanks for your help!

The minus ½ or 1" is only if you knit ‘to desired length’, same on the leg length. The bottom needles are the ones that make the bottom of the sock.

1)If you stick to the directions (10 or 15 rows) then you don’t have to worry about the rest. That’s just if you want to change the length, then you knit that many rows that the length of the rows equals (desired length in inches minus half an inch).

2)sorry, no idea

3)again, when you want the leg to measure say 5 inches, you knit until it measures 5-1=4 inches.