Measuring - from where to where?

If pattern says 3 inches do I measure to the top of the needle?

No, to the bottom of it.

When I measure what I am knitting I put the tape meaure end right up to the needle where my stitches are but not on top of them, kind of like a T, then I measure down to my cast on edge, if it is something that scallops I measure the short end , not the scallop end, by scallop I mean the curved ends that feather and fan makes.It is the area between the curves where I measure.

I always measure to the TOP of the needle.

I don’t think it really matters, as long as you are consistent every time you measure.

I have a related question… the pattern for my cardigan says to continue knitting the armhole until it measures 20 cms… but I’m just not sure whether that means 20cms in diameter (as the arm hole is sort of a semi circle) or if that means 20cms long following the curve (so the circumference)…

does anyone have any idea? If it helps I’m a petite woman and making the cardi for myself

Measure straight up from the row where you first cast off sts to shape the underarm.

thanks so much!