Gauge help for mitten pattern

Hello. I have a pattern for mittens. Here is the link

I haven’t used the yarn it asks for because I’d have to order it and it doesn’t come in the color I wanted. I bought patons classic wool and it worked fine but the cold air just went through them and I can actually see parts of my hand through them. I used a size 9 double point needles and gauge was fine, but trying to find another substitute yarn and don’t know what to go with. I don’t understand those gauge labels on the yarn. I just thought you buy whatever goes with the gauge. I mean the gauge calls for 4 sts in stockinette to equal 1 inch and I’m getting that. Can someone help me with suggestions to yarn or stepping down or up in needle size. I’m so confused:???:

The yarn in the pattern is actually a bulky one that you’d normally knit on size 10 needles. So going down to a 9 with it would squish the stitches together and be very dense. You can try size 6 or 7 needles with the patons yarn and either make the larger size, or add a few more sts. In the pattern where it says - [FONT=Verdana][SIZE=2]Next Rnd: k13(15), m1, k6(7), m1, k7, m1, k6(7), m1. [36 (40) sts] If you add 4 more sts and knit that round a k17, m1, k8, m1, k8, m1, that may make it large enough. For the other rows, wherever it shows [/SIZE][/FONT][FONT=Verdana][SIZE=2] k13(15), you’re going to k17, and wherever it’s [/SIZE][/FONT][FONT=Verdana][SIZE=2]p1(2) you’ll p3 instead, that will keep the cable in the right place.

Many times you can get the same gauge on the same needle using various yarn weights; it just that the thinner yarn will make a thinner (flatter) piece and the heavier yarn will be denser and thicker.

I like patons classic wool alot. It is inexpensive, goes on sale at the craft stores & is readily available. So I often use it for hats & scarfs. I have knit it on size #6, #7 & #8 needles. It does shrink some when you wash it.
I agree with suzeeq, make the larger size mitten on a smaller needle &/or increase the width of the cables. I’m into functional knits. Mittens need to keep you warm.