Socks - Universal Toe Up socks is always my favorite go to pattern for socks. You can customize for all feet sizes and all sock patterns.
Scarf - Seed stitch is my default if I'm unsure what style the recipient will like.
Hat - Beanie style K3, P1 ribbing decreasing even with a divisible number minus 2 stitches.
Gloves - Knucks is my favorite pattern for fingerless gloves that is knit fingers down. When the pattern first came out in 2006 all my friends got a pair for Christmas. Quick knit and only takes 1 skein of yarn for a pair.