I've used worsted, sport, and fingering weights. You cast on for a closed toe, the number of stitches determined by the weight of the yarn and how many you want to use. You then increase until the toe is as wide as you want it and just keep knitting straight till it's time to do the heel. I've used 70+ stitches or as few as about 40. The first pair I did was worsted weight, I wasn't ready to try fingering yarn yet and I wanted to learn the techniques needed on the heavier yarn. My worsted weight will work in loose boots, not regular shoes, or as house socks to keep my toes warm in winter.
The "pattern" calls for Judy's magic cast on but you could use any kind you want and use any heel turning method you want. That's all it is really, cast on, increase to the right circumference (I try mine on or have the person they're for try them on), knit until it's time to turn the heel and after doing the heel knit the cuff. No swatch, no actual pattern needed.