[COLOR=Red]We were also told that the same symbol meant different things depending on whether it was in an odd or even row. I’m wondering if this is true for all non-circular charts?[/COLOR]
It depends on the chart; for this one there's no symbol that means k on RS/p on WS for instance. Just follow this as written. And since you're knitting in the round, you read ALL rows from right to left. You do know this is knit in the round, not rows...?
[COLOR=Red]make a yarn over as the last stitch. Is there a special way to do this because it seems to just unravel when I turn sides and try to purl or knit into that last yarn over.[/COLOR]
I see the YOs as the first stitch in the round - see above.