Thanks for the suggestion to look at the instructions for the pattern itself. The abbreviations were listed there, and I don't know why I missed them when I read the pattern for the first time.
kp means [k1 p1] into next stitch, and pfkb is purl into front of stitch, knit into back of stitch.
Now I can get on to the fun stuff - knitting the sweater! I really appreciate your help.