Yes. Every time you pass one over, count that as 1. I'm not that good at "reading" my work after it's done, so I probably wouldn't be able to count chains. But I did use a pattern that called for bind off stitches in the middle of the row. Sometimes, I would just have to subtract what's left from what I started with, meaning if I started with 100 stitches, and part-way through my bind-off I had 20 on the left needle and 45 on the right, it meant I had bound off 35 stitches.
And like suzeeq said, if the pattern says to knit 10 then bind off 38, you have to knit 10, then begin binding off by first knitting 2 before passing the first over the second.
Then, the pattern I had said to "knit 4, including the one already on the right needle from your last bind-off stitch"