Okay, I'm not sure for the first one (I'm new myself), and this could be really dumb adivce but as your knitting those row's they should be getting longer (and it says from the beginning so that is what I'm assuming, the beginning of the whole pattern), so you just repeat rows 1 and 2 until it measures 23" and you end on a wrong side row. You might want to wait for better advice then me though! LOL
As for the second it looks like to me that you would repeat your rows 1 and 2 but start your measure from your decreased stitches, not from the beginning of your entire piece until it reaches 13".
The last one means: Row 1 (Right Side of work) purl 1 stitch, knit 1 stitch, purl 1 stitch * knit 2 stitches (seperate), purl 2 stitches (seperate) Reapeat from* until 5 stitches remain, so no, you do not stitch them together, it means seperate. If the pattern said "k2tog" that would mean "knit 2 together".
I probably wasn't much hlep since I'm a very beginner to but I hoped it helped a little. Also if you go the abbreviations on this site: http://www.knittinghelp.com/knitting/abbreviations_explained it might help a bit with the lingo, I darn near printed the whole thing out when I first found the site, it was such a help.
April in SC